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        英國留學生assignment范文精選(生物學方向)

        時間:2018-11-14 17:15:10 來源:www.equineteleseminar.net 作者:英國論文網 點擊聯系客服: 客服:Damien
        導讀:這是一篇生物學專業的assignment范文,討論了美國的生物技術產業。美國的生物技術產業從上個世紀70年代起步以來,始終是全球生物科技的領跑者,其生物技術公司數量占全球總數的三分之一。雖然之后的發展有一段衰退期,但之后在大型生物技術公司的帶動下,美國的生物技術產業再度進發出生機。美國生物技術產業作為一個整體,有望在未來幾年內首次實現全面贏利。
         
        Assignment范文題目:The biotechnology industry in the United States
         
        As the birthplace of modern biotechnology, the modern biological industry of the United States is in the leading position in the world. Fifty-five percent of the world's listed biotech companies come from the United States, and they account for 72 percent of the global industry's total tax revenue and 70 percent of research expenses. Due to the large investment in biotechnology research and development in the United States, significant progress has been made in a number of areas. Many new sources of stem cells have been found, and adult stem cells show greater potential. Bioinformatics has promoted the development of the two high-tech industries of biology and information. The market of bioinformatics was about 9 billion us dollars in 2003. By the end of 2004, the United States had raised $20.8 billion for the development of the biotechnology industry. In 2006 America's biotech firms did well, raising money by 38%. Operating income for U.S. public and private companies rose 13 percent to $59 billion.
        作為現代生物技術的發源地,美國現代生物產業在世界上處于領先地位。世界上市的百分之五十五的生物技術公司來自美國,占全球工業總稅收收入的72%和研究費用的70%。由于在美國對生物技術研究和開發的大量投資,在許多領域取得了重大進展。已發現許多新的干細胞來源,成體干細胞顯示出更大的潛力。生物信息學促進了生物和信息兩大高科技產業的發展。2003年生物信息學市場約為90億美元。到2004年底,美國已經為生物技術產業的發展籌集了208億美元。2006年,美國的生物技術公司表現良好,籌集資金38%。美國公共和私營公司的營業收入增長了13%,達到590億美元。
        In order to maintain its leading position, guide and protect technological innovation and stimulate the rapid development of modern biological industry, the us government has also formulated and implemented a number of preferential policies. The us food and drug administration gives equal treatment to drugs produced using modern biological methods and traditional drugs. It no longer requires testing of each batch of drugs before the new drug is released. The patent protection period of biotechnology is extended from 17 years to 20 years, and the patent application takes effect immediately after it is accepted. The number of new products approved in the United States rose from 33 in 2005 to 36 in 2006, with licenses for new drugs and biotechnology products increasing from 21 in 2005 to 25 in 2006.#p#分頁標題#e#
         
        One of the things that makes the American biotech industry proud is the fact that the United States has five of the world's leading biotech industrial zones: Boston, San Francisco, San Diego, Washington and the north Carolina research triangle. Not only have they become the backbone of the local economy, but they have also become the foundation of the American biotechnology industry on a large scale.
         
        The rise of the biotech industry in the region is no accident, but is driven by a number of important factors, including strong underlying research, a strong push from local institutions, the widespread use of information technology and strong support for venture capital.
         
        Such as Harvard University and the Massachusetts institute of technology in Boston, San Francisco bay area of the university of California, San Francisco, the university of California, Berkeley, and Stanford university are famous in the world famous universities, the university of California, San Diego, San Diego, is the national university of the United States federal research one of the most popular college expenses. Second, the local biotechnology industry started early. For example, the north Carolina biotechnology center, established in 1981, was the first state-created biotechnology industry promotion agency in the United States, and the birth of this agency was instrumental in north Carolina's biotech boom.
         
        At a time when biology is rapidly transforming into a computer-based science of protein structure and function analysis, it is vital that information technology advances in biotechnology. The silicon valley adjacent to San Francisco bay is home to a large pool of computer talent, an information technology talent that is a huge source of bioinformatics technology for the San Francisco bay biotech community.
         
        The San Francisco bay of the risk of investment is it sufficient development industry another advantage: many big information technology in silicon valley companies invest the part of the profits in the biotechnology industry, which injected blood for bay area of biotechnology industry, help to promote high technology industry in silicon valley boom venture capitalists also help the San Francisco bay area the development of biotechnology.
         
        In addition, the five regions also have other advantages, such as Boston's elite, north Carolina's low consumption level and close community cooperation atmosphere, and San Diego's outstanding living environment. In San Francisco bay, researchers are free to travel between universities and private businesses. Companies in the Washington area have an edge because they are close to where the policies are issued.
         
        Since its inception in the 1970s, the U.S. biotech industry has been a global leader in biotech, its biotech companies. It accounts for one-third of the global total. After sketching the human genome sequence in 2000, the American biotechnology industry enjoyed a period of great success. Unfortunately, the "genomic bubble" soon burst. The recession of the U.S. economy as a whole, the scandals of biotechnology companies like imclone, and the slow response of government regulators led to the sluggish U.S. biotech industry in the past few years. Between the start of 2001 and the end of 2002, the total value of publicly traded U.S. biotech companies fell by $170 billion. As recently as early 2003, America's biotech industry was still in the doldrums. At the same time, in 2001 ~ 2002, 9 ? 11 and the effects of the recession in the United States, biotechnology industry into the "limbo" by Wall Street.#p#分頁標題#e#
         
        Since mid-2003, the biotechnology industry has come back to life, led by big biotech companies. According to statistics, by the end of 2003, there were more than 2,000 biotechnology companies in the United States, among which more than 300 companies were listed and the total market capital reached $330.8 billion. Biotechnology has become one of the core driving forces for the development of high-tech industries in the United States. According to the 2004 global biotechnology report, published by ernst & young in 2004, there are now more biotech companies close to profitability than ever before, and the U.S. biotech industry as a whole is expected to become fully profitable for the first time in a few years. At the same time, on the government side, the bush administration has made the biological and pharmaceutical industry a new economic growth point, and the annual cost of biotechnology research and development is more than 38 billion dollars, second only to military science.
         
        The global biotechnology industry has made historic progress in recent years, according to the new global biotechnology report 2007 by ernst & young, a leading us consultancy. The head of the company's U.S. biotech division expects the U.S. biotech industry to be industry-wide profitable by 2010.
         
        U.S. biotechnology industry's rapid recovery, although the benefit from the recovery of the U.S. economy as a whole, and biotech companies themselves in new drug research and development, management and other aspects of the performance, but more importantly also thanks to the United States government in the biotechnology industry policy, and adopted by the regulator fruitful reform. Most American biotechnology derived from universities or research institutions, etc., on the basis of academic research and development of technology, through a number of promoting government policy, capital market vigorously investment and help to the industrial development of laws and regulations system, led to the American biotechnology industry leading position in the whole world, to say, the U.S. government a number of policies and measures is the biotechnology industry in the world unique competitive advantage.
         
        Currently, the United States has formed a joint research, development and production mechanism consisting of federal government, state government, enterprises, scientific research institutions and universities in the field of biotechnology industry. The government encourages cooperation in production, learning and research by delegating state research and development achievements. The U.S. biotech industry is the world's most successful example of biotech, and government support for industry plays a key role.

        (責任編輯:未知)


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