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        經濟學Essay參考案例:An Analysis of Infrastructure Development in India

        時間:2022-01-14 09:13:38 來源:www.equineteleseminar.net 作者:英國論文網 點擊聯系客服: 客服:Damien

        本文是經濟學專業的Essay范例,題目是An Analysis of Infrastructure Development in India(印度基礎設施發展分析)”,基礎設施建設對一個國家的經濟發展起著非常重要的作用。以其他國家為例,快速增長的經濟推動需求,并導致基礎設施建設的更快發展。然而,印度的情況有點令人失望,根據IMF的數據,印度目前在139個國家的基礎設施質量排名中排名第91位,盡管印度一直被認為是僅次于中國的增長潛力最大的國家。最糟糕的是,低質量的基礎設施體系成為印度進入發達國家世界和讓公民擺脫貧困的障礙。下面將總結這種表現不佳的原因,并討論發展道路上的潛力和處理。

        Infrastructure development plays a very significant role in its economic growth of a nation. Taking examples from other countries, a fast growing economy drive demand and lead to an even faster development of infrastructure. However, Indias case is a bit disappointing, which currently ranked 91st out of 139 nations in quality of infrastructure according to IMF, though India has always been quoted as the country with highest growth potential after China. The worst is low quality infrastructure system becomes an obstacles presenting India from breaking into the world of developed nations and bringing the citizens out of poverty. The following will summarize the reason for this underperformance and discuss the potential and treat along the path of development.

         經濟學Essay范例

        Summary of excerpts總結摘錄

        Numerous problems now causing the failure of Indias infrastructure are land clearance issues; insufficient compensation, unclear regulations, access to financing etc. After all, Indians philosophical attitude and the democracy system contribute a deep-rooted cause on the failure. Comparing with China, China used infrastructure as a policy instrument and political tool to reduce poverty and generate growth trading off with the cost of enlarged inequality and huge regional disparity, while India emphasis more on redistribution which proved to be unsuccessful for it is self-destroying the impetus to generate robust and sustained growth. China managed to have strong integration and coordination between policy-making and implementation. India is more technical rather then political driven and adopt a more participatory and democratic approach, causing duplication of responsibilities and weakened accountability among different levels of government and political parties, resulting in inefficient implementation and resource allocation.

        現在導致印度基礎設施失敗的眾多問題是土地清理問題;薪酬不足,監管不明確,融資渠道等。畢竟,印度人的哲學態度和民主制度是其失敗的深層原因。與中國相比,中國將基礎設施作為一種政策工具和政治工具,以減少貧困和促進增長為代價,以擴大不平等和巨大的地區差距為代價,而印度更強調再分配,這被證明是不成功的,因為這是自我毀滅,產生強勁和持續增長的動力。中國的政策制定和實施實現了很強的一體化和協調性。印度更多的是技術而不是政治驅動,采用了一種更有參與性和民主的方法,導致了不同級別政府和政黨之間的責任重復和責任弱化,導致了低效的執行和資源分配。

         

        Nevertheless, Indian Government did have a strong will in growing infrastructure. Structural and procedural reforms at various government levels have been taken place to facilitate infrastructure growth. Apart from local private capital and return from public user fees, Indian Government acknowledge that foreign investment is major source of investment into infrastructure sector, therefore she is providing more flexibility towards capital flow and is setting policy to lower the risk and increase private capital return.

         

        Though the potential is promising, India inevitably face different present and future challenges during the path. Over the subsidy and investment issues, a good economic as well as incentive balance between tax-payers, public users, private local and foreign investors must be strived for. Consequently, pricing, tax regimes, stability in exchange rate and real interest rates will be the other conditions to formulate the model. Also, a transparent and equitable regulatory framework, reliable judicial system with efficient dispute resolution mechanism will be vital. Given Indian democracy has got its stand in the decade of poverty, it will be a real challenge for this system to prove that it can lead the way to growing prosperity over this transition path.

        盡管潛力巨大,但在這條道路上,印度不可避免地會面臨不同的當前和未來挑戰。在補貼和投資問題上,必須爭取在納稅人、公共使用者、本地私人和外國投資者之間取得良好的經濟和激勵平衡。因此,定價、稅收制度、匯率穩定和實際利率將是制定模型的其他條件。此外,一個透明和公平的監管框架、可靠的司法系統和有效的爭端解決機制也至關重要。鑒于印度的民主制度在貧困的十年中站穩了立場,要證明它能夠在這條過渡道路上引領印度走向繁榮,將是一個真正的挑戰。

         

        Introduction on India inward and outward international investment印度對外投資和對外投資概況

        FDI can leverage development efforts in a number of ways, including boosting export competitiveness; generating employment and strengthening the skill base as well as enhancing technological capabilities, enriching financial resources for development and help integrating a country in the international trading system and eventually promoting a more competitive business environment. Following an overview of the infrastructure development in India, it is again a bit disappointing to find that inward and outward international investment sector have not been developing on its full potential either. According to United Nations Conference on trade and Developments report, Indias FDI inflow in 2008-2009 is in the ninth place, behind Russia Germany and Saudi Arabia, while China is in the second place just behind US. For FDI outflows, India is not among the 20 top economies. The next part will summarize the performance of India in this area and discuss the problem and potential for growth.

        外國直接投資可以以多種方式利用發展努力,包括提高出口競爭力;創造就業機會,加強技能基礎,提高技術能力,豐富發展的財政資源,幫助一個國家融入國際貿易體系,并最終促進一個更具競爭力的商業環境?;仡櫽《然A設施的發展,再次令人失望的是,國內外的國際投資部門也沒有充分發揮其潛力。根據聯合國貿易和發展會議(United Nations Conference on trade and Development)的報告,2008-2009年,印度的FDI流入排在第九位,排在俄羅斯、德國和沙特阿拉伯之后,而中國排在第二位,僅次于美國。就FDI外流而言,印度不在前20大經濟體之列。下一部分將總結印度在這一領域的表現,并討論問題和增長潛力。

         

        Summary of excerpts總結摘錄

        Indias outbound FDI has been functional and is market oriented rather than political. For example, investment aiming at acquiring raw material, acquisitions in the IT and IT services sectors to leverage IT development. Skewing towards the service sector and towards countries with high income and established large markets are found in Indias OFDI. This also explains why Indian OFDI went down during financial crisis in 2009 while Chinese OFDI doubled. Indicating that Chinas OFDI is mainly political, and depending on her own security and economic interests rather than inducing by market forces.

        印度的對外直接投資一直是功能性的,是市場導向的,而不是政治導向的。例如,旨在獲取原材料的投資,在ITIT服務部門的收購,以利用IT發展。印度的對外直接投資偏向于服務部門和高收入和已建立大市場的國家。這也解釋了為什么在2009年金融危機期間,印度對外直接投資下降,而中國對外直接投資翻了一番。這表明中國的對外直接投資主要是政治性的,是依靠自身的安全和經濟利益,而不是受市場力量的誘導。

         

        It was after the 1991 reform that inbound FDI into India become more important, mainly because of the inward looking strategy which the government of India has adopted over the years. In recent years, though India has significant rise in IFDI inflows and has been regarded as the second most attractive destination for IFDI after China, it still receives far less IFDI flows than China and is behind HK and Russia etc.

        1991年改革后,外商直接投資進入印度變得更加重要,這主要是因為印度政府多年來采取的內向型戰略。近年來,盡管印度的IFDI資金流入顯著上升,并被視為僅次于中國的第二大最有吸引力的投資目的地,但印度接收的IFDI資金仍遠低于中國,落后于香港和俄羅斯等國。

         經濟學Essay如何寫

        By linking between IFDI and economy growth, empirical study suggest that in order to attract foreign investment, an economy has to reach a threshold level, instead of a blind belief that IFDI cause economic growth in case of underdeveloped countries behind that threshold. Inducing to a thought that India need to be equipped with her education, technology and infrastructure before being qualified to reap the full potential benefits of inbound FDI.

         

        Looking more detail into what is lagging behind the threshold, abundant deficiencies have been identified and is found unsatisfactory by outside investors. As mentioned above, poor state of infrastructure is the most apparent problem. Rigidities in Indian labor markets causing inefficient labor market, this reduce overall competitiveness of Indian labor. Though having well defined legal system, enforcing contracts is costly and timely in India, which is another core factor damaging business incentive. Another issue is with health and primary education, which is a potential threat for India to truly enjoy her demographic dividend. Though the country has a huge working age population, a shortage of talent has already been observed, creating negative repercussions on both OFDI and IFDI. The above persistent business environment problems are what the Indian government have to put their priorities on in order to achieve the her attainable dynamic growth potential.

        更詳細地研究滯后于門檻的因素,發現了大量的不足之處,外部投資者對此并不滿意。如上所述,基礎設施的糟糕狀況是最明顯的問題。印度勞動力市場的僵化導致勞動力市場效率低下,這降低了印度勞動力的整體競爭力。盡管印度有明確的法律體系,但執行合同的成本高且及時,這是損害商業動機的另一個核心因素。另一個問題是衛生和初等教育,這是印度真正享受人口紅利的潛在威脅。盡管中國有巨大的勞動年齡人口,但人才短缺已經被觀察到,這對對外直接投資和國際直接投資都產生了負面影響。上述持續存在的商業環境問題是印度政府必須優先考慮的問題,以實現其可實現的動態增長潛力。

         

        Personal thoughts個人的想法

        Probably India will not be able to follow the same stir-fry strategy of China, for it lack the conditions to have central planning development, export-led growth, to fund high quality infrastructure by tapping the capital gains on state land from economic growth etc. In this part, instead of further criticizing India for its poor government capacity, slow decision-making, bulky procedures, bureaucratic inefficiency and so on, which may be inevitably inherited from colonial rulers, and instead of comparing her with China unfairly, I try to rationalize all these into the projection of her growing trajectory towards 2020.

        也許印度將無法遵循中國的炒菜策略,因為它缺乏實現中央計劃發展、出口導向型增長的條件,無法通過利用國有土地的經濟增長帶來的資本收益來為高質量的基礎設施提供資金。在這一部分中,我們沒有進一步批評印度政府能力差、決策緩慢、程序龐大、官僚效率低下等不可避免地繼承自殖民統治者的問題,也沒有不公地將印度與中國進行比較,我試圖將所有這些合理化到她2020年增長軌跡的預測中。

         

        India is trying to apply the development model of small government and big society, which has its own nature benefit under the law of market economy. This model also generate greater economic recovery ability, such a society will have a corrective mechanism to prevent the problem from deteriorating on a timely manner whenever there is an economic problem. In the recent global financial crisis, India is one of the less affected one and the economic recovery is remarkably fast. While other countries in the world are urging for looser monetary policy, India has quietly ended hers. India quickly run out of the shadow and return to 8% GDP growth. Indias model does have a place worthy of study. This mechanism may be Indias strength for auto-corrections and self-balancing over the growing track. This is also good model in fitting the technocratic genes of Indians and matches their desire towards check and balance, ensuring rationality and achieving managerial efficiency.

         

        Though India has not achieved its desired growth, which is also a by-product of small government and big society, creating various problems which constrains economic development and foreign investment, the undefeatable fact is India owns a large potential market demand. Indias economy today is about a quarter of the size of China, is it possible for India to surpass China within ten years? My own opinion is that it wont. Towards 2020, India will continue to move piece by piece through improving the condition for economic growth, e.g. develop better vision for growth (their strength overall), show government commitment and political will, boost investorsconfidence, have further open policy and remove unnecessary roadblocks, make human capital more productive and improve education before turning demography to a threat. Cooperation with China will continue with am aiming to enjoy mutual benefit between the two great economies which have different strength and weaknesses. Continuous double digit growth will be possible towards 2020.

        雖然印度還沒有實現其預期的增長,這也是“小政府大社會”的副產品,產生了各種問題,制約了經濟發展和外國投資,但不可否認的事實是印度擁有巨大的潛在市場需求。印度今天的經濟規模大約是中國的四分之一,印度有可能在10年內超過中國嗎?我個人認為不會。到2020年,印度將繼續通過改善經濟增長條件一步一步前進,例如制定更好的增長愿景(他們的總體實力),展示政府承諾和政治意愿,提振投資者信心,進一步開放政策,消除不必要的障礙。在人口構成威脅之前,提高人力資本的生產率,改善教育。我們將繼續與中國合作,目的是在這兩個優勢和劣勢不同的大經濟體之間實現互利共贏。到2020年,將有可能實現持續的兩位數增長。

         

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