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        工商管理Essay參考案例:Impact of Mobile Commerce on the Retail Market

        時間:2021-12-13 09:21:39 來源:www.equineteleseminar.net 作者:英國論文網 點擊聯系客服: 客服:Damien

        本文是工商管理業的留學生Essay范例,題目是“Impact of Mobile Commerce on the Retail Market(移動商務對零售市場的影響)”,隨著美國智能手機使用量的持續增長,手機銷量的增長是毋庸置疑的。根據皮尤研究中心(Pew Research Center)的數據,95%的美國成年人擁有手機,其中77%是智能手機。智能設備和Wi-Fi接入的改善促進了移動購物的轉變。

        What E-Commerce services are provided by M-Commerce?移動商務提供哪些電子商務服務?

        The increase in mobile sales is no disbelief, as the sustained increase in smartphone use through the U.S. According to the Pew Research Center, 95% of U.S. grownups own mobile phones and 77% of them are smartphones. Improved access to both smart devices and Wi-Fi are facilitating the swing to mobile shopping.

         工商管理 Essay范例

        There are many diverse explanations and descriptions of what M-Commerce is. Lehman (1995) describes M-Commerce as the use of mobile hand-held devices to communicate, inform, transact and entertain using text and data via connection to public and private networks.This is a very broad description as mobile technology has continued to grow and its capabilities have been developed and continue to develop furiously. Haddon (1997) supports this broad view by defining M-commerce as a financial transaction specifically purchasing and selling


        M-Commerce includes many new innovative apps that have become possible simply due to the advances in technology. These apps include mobile financial services checking account balance/info, money transfer etc. Travel online reservation, timetables, Airline/train tickets. Entertainment (games) News/information. Event ticket booking (telephone and online booking).These are all examples of E-commerce services that have the capability to be carried out using mobile devices.


        Discuss the role of M-Commerce in retailing.討論移動商務在零售業中的作用。

        According to CBRE, from 2013 to 2017 M-commerce sales grew 276% and they are expected by 2021 to grow another 170%. This growth is expected to bring m-commerce sales beyond those of computer sales and account for approximately 54% of online retail sales by 2021.



        Combined with changes in consumer shopping habits technology and retailersinvestments in mobile channels they are contributing significantly to m-commerce growth.


        From advertising and social media to mobile-friendly websites and apps, retailers are investing in strategies to reach consumers via their phones. Although the consumer demand is driving investments data is another main for encouragement pushing mobile commerce. By implementing attractive loyalty plans and apps, consumers are sharing a data about their shopping behaviours. Thus facilitating retailers with an improved and enhanced understanding of their customers and the ability to adapt offers and products to individual customers.


        According to Strategy& survey, over half (54%) of consumers like online loyalty promotions that provide points and offers which allow consumers to have access across all channels both instore and online. An example of this kind of scheme is represented by Amazon who offer their customers a subscription option to Amazon Prime. This promotion offers consumers free next day delivery and discounts on products all for $79 dollars a year. Last years figures showed a sign up of over 2million people with a growth annually of 24%. A statistic that Amazon have released is that a subscriber spends on average 130% more than non-subscribers and new members spend a total of $900 which is an increase from $400 .


        Latitude1 surveyed smartphone users in both America and the UK, which resulted in over 60% of consumers once they received an email or a text message from a retailer they were more inclined to buy from that brand. Furthermore, try onvirtual simulations, digital content, sample videos and product info interested 79% of shoppers


        PWC (2018) stress Give customers a new, enjoyable, rewarding, novel, and inventive channel in which to purchase your products and increase their loyalty.Resulting in m-commerce becoming second nature and part a normal and expected part of the retailing experience.


        Why is M-Commerce such a fragmented market?為什么移動商務是一個如此分散的市場?

        Enterprise Guide to Gaining Business Value from Mobile Technologies a book by Adam Kornaks expresses mobility as business transactions and data access at any time from any device, anywhere using wireless technology.Kornak (Pp. 4-5) (2004)

        Adam Kornak的《從移動技術中獲取商業價值的企業指南》一書將移動性描述為“在任何時間、任何地點、任何設備上使用無線技術進行商業交易和訪問數據”?!?/span>Kornak(4-5)(2004)


        Moreover, Deloitte stress in mobile one size does not fit all. Retailers should take steps to understand their customers and how they shop within specific product categories.Retailers have the ability to shape and use the technology to enhance their shopping experience.


        Camponovo (2002) highlights that m-commerce is a very promising and an emerging industry, however highlights that due to technology continuously changing the m-commerce industry is complex and a very uncertain environment. Futhermore, Camponovo (2002) paper on m-commerce business models highlights that many big players in the industry are still experimenting with a variety of technologies and business models with the long term view of trying to implement a profitable and sustainable position.


        Overall there are many uncertainties in the m-commere sector as in what technologies will have a transformative influence, and what technologies are just hype? This is a normal for emerging industries. As a consequence retailers must try a variety of strategic approaches as well as continually revaluating and repositioning themselves in order to be in the most competitive position possible.


        4. Why do retailers spend much of their IT budget on M-Commerce?


        Michael Moeser, Javelin payments practice director stated Mobile is the growth engine of digital commerce.In the US a survey by Javelin predicted that the market share of purchases by smart devices will grow to $319 billion by 2020 from $122 billion in 2015.


        eMarketers numbers suggest, a huge amount of sales are being missed out by retailers. They indicated that many retailers websites are not mobile friendly/accessible. According to eMarketers consumers are influenced up to One-third more by searching for additional information on products via smart/mobile device


        Richard Lowe, CEO, BT Expedite highlighted recently that huge retailers are investing in technology and have set aside up to Many retailers are struggling to keep pace with the rapidly changing requirements of multichannel operations with legacy systems slowing them down. Replacing these systems is vital for gaining competitive advantage.

        BT Expedite首席執行官Richard Lowe最近強調,大型零售商正在對技術進行投資,并已準備好“許多零售商正在努力跟上多渠道業務快速變化的需求,遺留系統會減慢他們的速度。替換這些系統對于獲得競爭優勢至關重要?!?/span>


        Retailers need to focus on their mobile apps, mobile marketing and facilitating the omnichannel buying experience,Mr. Moeser said. Consumers are more willing than ever to receive mobile marketing messages from retailers and willing to act upon them.


        Millennial shoppers aged 25-34 from a recent study show they are the top and largest users in the mobile commerce area. With this in mind it is important for retailers to streamline their services and offer a user friendly experience across multiple services. With the statistic of 87% of 25-34 year olds have at least purchased a product online this highlights the shift and the importance of integrating technology.



        Recent study shows that the largest share of mobile commerce will come from millennial shoppers, as the top users of mcommerce shopping are individuals aged 25 to 34. Eighty-seven percent of that demographic has purchased something online in the past month, showcasing the importance for retailers to offer streamlined checkout options.

         工商管理 Essay怎么寫

        5. Discuss the impact of M-Commerce on competition among retailers.討論移動商務對零售商競爭的影響。

        According to David Eads (2011) a survey found that 90% of retailers believe that mobile commerce is already impacting shopping activities and that shoppers are gradually demanding a seamless mobile shopping experience, with over 60% of shoppers choices being mobile influenced for instore purchases, with 40% using mobile apps to make shopping decisions and 37% using a combination of the two.These statistics illustrate the barriers retailers are facing that are stopping them from introducing end-to-end mobile commerce strategies.

        根據David Eads(2011)的一項調查發現,90%的零售商認為移動商務已經影響了購物活動,購物者正逐漸要求無縫的移動購物體驗,超過60%的購物者在商店購買時的選擇受到移動的影響,40%的人使用手機應用來做購物決定,37%的人同時使用兩者。這些數據表明,零售商正面臨著阻礙他們引入端到端移動商務戰略的障礙。


        Whether its in the travel, healthcare, retail or the financial industries, the key challenge for businesses to overcome when adopting a complete mobile strategy is the rising level of mobile fragmentation. Ley Valentin, C. (2017) highlights when we look at the best brands in retail the best customers and the best retailers success is an experience that is consistent across all mediums and platforms. There is an extraordinary level of competition in the mobile marketplace with numerous crucial companies persistently developing new technologies, shoppers have never had so many options.


        Because of MIDs, customers have come to expect a flexible and seamless experience across different channels, whether at their local store or on the social web, whether mobile or at a computer, and whether online or offline (Fulgoni, 2014).


        6. What are the difficulties in managing mobile technology?6管理移動技術的困難是什么?

        There are many opportunities in mobile technology however as Jonas Haertfelder et al (2016) state there are many challenges as well. Piotrowicz et al (2014) highlight the development of social media and in what way it has brought the social network into the store. From sharing prodcuts, experience, product prices pictures, opinions and thoughts. Spaid et al (2014) discuss how customers can post their opinion regarding a sales assistant they have come in contact with or post and share a comment regarding their satisfaction or dissatisfaction of the store. This as Piotrowicz et al (2014) highlight is a problem and challenge for retailers as they have no direct influence on any social network.

        移動技術有許多機遇,但正如Jonas Haertfelder等人(2016)所說,也有許多挑戰。Piotrowicz等人(2014)強調了社交媒體的發展,以及它是如何將社交網絡帶入商店的。從分享產品,經驗,產品價格圖片,意見和想法。Spaid等人(2014)討論了顧客如何發布他們對接觸過的銷售助理的意見,或者發布和分享關于他們對商店的滿意或不滿意的評論。正如Piotrowicz等人(2014)所強調的,這對零售商來說是一個問題和挑戰,因為他們對任何社交網絡都沒有直接影響。


        Piotrowicz et al (2014) also highlight the organizational challenges that can occur trying to update and maintain multiple technology channels. Fulgoni (2014) develop on this point by discussing that even if a retailer provides different channels, usually there are different people and different departments highlighting the lack of integration within organizations. Zhang et al, (2010) emphasize the need for retailers to optimize and strive to achieve efficiency across channels.


        Another challenge retailers have is the buying process between channels. Brynjolfsson et al, (2013) mention the showroomphenomenon which invites customers to the store for the physical touch and seebut the purchasing process of the product is online. Verhoef et al., (2015) underline that retailers are in a tricky position as Peltola et al, (2015) stress customers do not separate the different channels, they are all one and the different channels in a customers journey are only continuing to increase.


        Furthermore, it is important to get the balance of channels correct. A study from 2000 thats has been cited found that the more payment options, frequently leads to a reduction in sales and consumer satisfaction. An example is the variety of mobile payments. Several mobile wallets are unavailable in all geographic positions while shoppers in some sites favour one payment choice over another. A real life example is in the Netherlands, 70-80% of individuals use iDeal, a payment system which isnt used in many other locations or very few.  If you dont have iDeal in Holland, the Dutch wont buy from you. Overall with technology there is always the need for constant optimization to ensure the customer has a fast and simple experience.


        What is the future for M-Commerce?移動商務的未來是什么?

        Ovum predicts by 2026 that a quick and efficient experience will be critical to a retailerssuccess whatever the channel whether that be mobile or desktop. Overall this means that the customer will have the ability to buy a product or service instantaneously and have the ability to see when its on its way to their home. Amazon and Ebay are already driving the market towards this same or next day deliverymentality which is raising customersexpectations.



        This will not only occur in the retail sector but across all sectors. AI and Data analysis is predicted to play a huge part in m-commerce and shoppers future experience as they demand and expect their experience to be more related to their lives. Recommendations and product proposals will become vital for retailers, merging social media activity and prior searches to mould and adapt the experience to that individual, whether in the physical store or online via multiple devices.


        A study by eMarketer reports that social networks users favour messenger apps (54.4%) to get in contact with the retailer as opposed to phone calls email, and traditional discussion (46.6%). H&M and Starbucks are already brands that have already implemented technology like chatbots and messaging services and this will continue to grow throughout the different brands and sectors.The bot technology is still in its emerging period however Verhoef, P et al (2015) state there is enormous potential for this technology in the mcommerce market.


        Consumers can anticipate Augmented reality (AR) to exhibit how outfits will appear on them before they choose to purchase. From makeup and household furniture, this technology could form the divide between virtual and he real world. Currently, return of goods has always been a problem for retailers however AR could eliminate this as shoppers will have the opportunity to try before they buy.



        According to Statista, in 2017 there were around 2.31 billion smartphones connected to the Web; this number is still growing and in 2020 it will probably reach almost 3.0 billion. Google predicts PWAs are the future of mobile and we think they can also be the future of mobile commerce, solving its most problematic pain points. PWAs combine the best things from the mobile and web approaches Mobile web reach which is 3 times higher than on Apps. It is way easier to launch an internet browser and look for info, a product you need, etc., than to download a particular app, install it, launch it, and so on. This technology is still pretty new and rather in the early stages of development, but some huge e-commerce players have already benefit from it. For example, AliExpress increased conversion rate for new users by 104% with their new PWAs.The airline industry is taking a page from smartphone and computer hardware makers, by dabbling in facial recognition technology to speed up the convenience factor for customers. Recently, Delta Air Lines was the first to launch a biometric terminal in the U.S. for international flights at its Atlanta hub. Passengers can choose to check-in with the optional technology to speed up the process. Trent Gillies


        根據Statista的數據,2017年約有23.1億部智能手機連接到互聯網;這一數字仍在增長,到2020年可能會達到近30億。谷歌預測PWAs是移動的未來,我們認為他們也可以是移動商務的未來,解決其最大的問題痛點。PWAs結合了移動和網頁的優點——移動網頁的覆蓋范圍是應用的3倍。比起下載一個特定的應用,安裝并啟動它,打開一個網絡瀏覽器并尋找你需要的產品等信息要容易得多。這項技術仍然很新,還處于發展的早期階段,但一些大型電子商務公司已經從中受益。例如,全球速賣通通過其新的PWAs將新用戶的轉換率提高了104%。航空行業正在向智能手機和電腦硬件制造商學習,通過涉足面部識別技術來加快為客戶提供便利的因素。最近,達美航空公司(Delta Air Lines)率先在其亞特蘭大樞紐機場為國際航班設立了生物識別終端。乘客可以選擇使用可選的技術來加快辦理手續的速度。特倫特Gillies




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